Illness and injury inc. emergency procedures essay

Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses. There are lots of illnesses that children pick up from chicken pox to cold sores. The first common childhood illness if want to identify the signs and symptoms of is Chicken Pox. The first signsymptom that starts chicken pox of and makes adults aware that the child has this is the rash it begins with a rash and within 12-14 hours will be itchy blisters that usually appear in patches.

However there are many symptoms before the rash that could indicate to chicken pox such as a child may have: a high temperature and felling sick chining and painful muscles a headaches and all round felling unwell. The spots usually appear in clusters and tend to be: Behind the ears On the face Over the scalp On the chest and belly On the arms and legs hand and feet The second common child hood illness is meningitis. Babies and toddlers from 0-5 years are more common and most likely to develop meningitis. There are two kinds of this illness: Bacterial and Viral. Babies and toddlers are at most risk of developing bacterial meningitis.

Some of the symptoms/slang are: High fever Cold hands and feet Vomiting And refusing food. And a rash may develop One of the most common ways to discover if your child does have meningitis Is by doing something called the glass test. This can be done if a rash appears not every child with meningitis will get one. If you press the sides of a clear glass firmly against the skin and the rash dons fade Sis sign of macroeconomic skepticism. If this is the case the rash will be of tiny pin pricks that will eventually develop into purple bruising. If the child has a fever and a rash that does not fade under pressure seek medical help straight away.

Viral meningitis signs and symptoms are: Mild flu like symptoms Fever Generally not feeling well Neck stiffness Sensitivity to light Unlike bacterial meningitis viral impinges doesn’t usually lead to skepticism which is blood poisoning. There is no clear way without medical tests to distinguish the difference between the two types of meningitis. The third and final childhood illness will be Croup. This is an infection of the throat and vocal chords. It’s most commonly caused by a virus that makes the lining of throat to become red and swollen. In children under 5 years old it is called croup over 5 years olds it’s called laryngitis.

It often starts after a people of days of having cold as it is caused by the same viruses. Signs and symptoms of croup/laryngitis Cold like symptoms that develop into a cough and fever. Raspy voice Loud barking cough Tiredness Any activity that makes the child breather faster could make the child sound worse. Symptoms of croup are often worse at night. If the child’s symptoms then it is recommended by the NASH to seek medical help. If not then it can be treated at home. 2. 2. Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured. There are different actions to take when children are ill or injured.

Children are usually up to all kinds and getting into all kinds of situations so child care professional have to be prepared for anything that could happen to a child or young person whilst they are in there care. Child/young person A is playing at break time and trips over causing them to cut there knee. In this scenario I would take the child/young person indoors to where the first aid box is kept. I would then access the cut to see weather medics are needed (if the cut is a deep wound) if not I would then calm the child down would then Wipe the cut with an antiseptic wipe once done lasted it and make sure the child is k.

Child/young person B was doing pie and was using the gym equipment of a great height. As they were climbing they fell hitting there head on the way down and child B is now unconscious. In this situation medical attention is needed. One adult should take all children back to the classroom whilst one stays with the child/young person another staff member must alert the manager/head teacher and make sure 999 is called and an ambulance on the way once this has happened the parents/guardians need to be made aware and told which hospital to go to. Once the ambulance has arrived a staff member needs to go in the ambulance with the child.

Child/young person C was not there usual self this morning and was also less active at playtime they are now running a high temperature. The thing to do in this situation would be to let the manager know who will then contact their parents/guardians to collect the child if they are UN available to collect the child look on the child’s contact sheets and phone the next family member i. E. Grandparents. Once collected they should then be kept off from nursery for up to 48 hours until the temperature is down 2:3 . Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention.

When working in a childcare setting there will be circumstances were children may require urgent medical attention. Circumstances happen in everyday life. In a child care setting there could be a number of things that children could get into and require medical attention urgently for example if a child has symptoms of a serious illness such as meningitis which could be a fever, headache and more reassuringly if there’s a rash which does not fade when a glass is pressed to it. Another would be if they were having trouble breathing ND blueness around the lip area.

As a member of staff working around young people and children we need to be aware of changes in children’s behavior children/young people may also require urgent medical attention if they have any of the following: Bone fractures, seizures, concussions or asthma attacks. 2. 4. Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: ; fires ; security incidents ; missing children or young people In childcare settings there will be emergency situations. Children need to be aware what to do in situations like fires which is why there are practice drills.

The actions to take in a fire would be as follows: If you have discovered the fire alert all in the building by setting off the fire alarm. If the fire is controllable get the nearest extinguisher and put the fire out. If the fire cannot be handled via an extinguisher, head out to the nearest assembly point and make sure fire services are on the way. Once everyone is out, take a register to make sure each person is accounted for and if anyone is missing alert the fire service as to how many and who is missing. No-one should attempt to re-enter the building but the fire service.

Security incidents could e a number of things. Strangers seen anywhere near the premises should be asked to leave and if they refuse the police to be called. If the stranger is in the building the police must be notified immediately or if there is evidence of an attempted burglary or burglary it should be reported to the police and the setting closed for the day. When it comes to a missing child a thorough search of the building and surrounding outside area is to be done. If the child is still unaccounted for the head/manager of the setting is to be told and the police phone immediately and parents also made aware.

Pay for Performance essay

The purpose of this paper is to prove that higher compensation yields higher performance and profitability. It’s important to begin this paper by stating that compensation is a very significant human resources tool that is used by organizations around the globe to manage their employees. For an organization to receive its moneys worth, and motivate and retain skilled employees, it must ensure that its compensation system is functioning properly and well.

Not only it important for a firm to link compensation to its goals, values and strategies, it is also important that its compensation system aligns with the firm’s HER strategy (Knick, et al. , 201 1). On the final research paper it will discuss the advantages of pay for performance, the productivity implication, and performance objectives of paying for performance. The following are some findings from preliminary research. The best way of driving people to work harder and more efficiently is by offering more money for hitting specific companies’ targets.

There are two main advantages of paying for performance; one: the motivation of earning a higher income brings forth the employees’ best qualities and inspires them to put forth their best effort. Two: when the pay is higher, it attracts more qualified and higher quality employees. According to Moraines, et al. , (2013), Incentive pay is usually used to obtain specific performance results and companies that have made the transition from “Salary” to “Individual incentives”, have proven to have increased productivity as much as 44 percent.

This increase has shown that by directly inking pay for performance motivates and aids the recruiting and the retention of the most talented and qualified employees. As our workforce are becoming more specialized, new graduates are seeking to join companies that are now implementing performance related rewards. The use of “paying for performance” has increased in popularity and has shown that when pay is based on performance, employees work harder.

As much as 67 percent of companies are now offering some type of performance pay to employees that are hired below the executive level (Lundeberg, 2009). Similarly, other arms of paying employees for performance such as the compensation of employees through options such as stocks and other types of incentives have also become very popular in today’s business world. Enveloping a pay for performance Structure has proven to solve organizational difficulties by aligning the preferences of firms and it’s employees.

Furthermore, establishing a pay for performance system aids as a sorting mechanism to identify and attract the most qualified employees. (Gordon, Gaskin) How do we design a Compensation Program that will in fact yield a higher refit and motivate employees? Financial compensation is a fast and ever-changing business environment that could weaken a firm’s ability to build trust. This is because there is an implied negotiation between what management wants and expects and what executives wants and demands.

To create synergy in pay for performance requires more than a concept or strategy and will yield little results unless all corporate enterprise unit levels are making conscious decisions and are aware of the strategies and motivations that will guide their units to achieve success. Therefore, corporate enterprises should have active policies to communicate, educate, motivate, and align their ongoing management process (Lundeberg 2009). Any compensation program that will improve the quality Of products and customer service and sustain the essential employee’s performance must adhere to behavioral principles.

Augury (2008), stated that wages and salaries act as negative reinforces rather than positive ones. In contrast, Whittles (2006), argues that compensation is strategic not only in motivating and attracting the worker being compensated, but also in its impact on peer rockers and the firm’s complementary activities (Strategic Management Journal, 2012). Because compensation is a critical component of organizational strategy, influencing a company’s performance by sustaining the motivation amongst its employees and attraction and retaining newly hires is fundamental to the success of an organization.

Firms that are seeking to maximize their productivity on behalf of their shareholders seek both to hire the most skilled employees and to motivate those employees to put forth their best effort and maximize their output. When the goals of a firm are not properly aligned with those of their employees, problems may rise. Such problems as when employees are mostly concerned with their compensation and maintaining a comfortable effort level than with putting forth their best effort to produce as much as possible for their organization.

In contrast, pay for performance can act as a compensation scheme in which compensation is systematically tied to the employee’s output. In addition, pay for performance can also act as a sorting device to identify and attract the most capable employees. The Bureau of Labor Statistics 2009), stated that employee wages accounts for 60 to 95 percent of the average company’s costs excluding a firm’s physical costs of goods sold. According to Larkin, Pierce, and Going (2012), the strategy of compensation is dominated by one theory and one motivation: the use of psychological reinforces and a focus on executive compensation.

Yet, the pay of nonconsecutive represents the bulk of a company’s wage bill. In addition, employee compensation is directly linked to the organization’s choices about their technology, diversification, market position, and human capital. All compensation programs should be strategic and used to maximize profits based on its unique costs and benefits. According to Larkin, Pierce, and Going (201 2), costs arise due to a lack of consistency between firms and employees in areas that are linked to the company’s objectives and information.

An employee may not put forth their best effort and the firm may be paying workers more than they actually are worth. In addition, firms will seek to maximize their profits, and increased compensation will in turn affect profitability by motivating employees effort and attracting more highly lifted and skilled employees. For the reason that workers know their own effort exertion and skill level, firms are not fully aware of their employee’s skills or exertion level.

In order for a firm to overcome these asymmetries, they provide incentives for workers to exert effort and self-select by skill level. By offering a low guaranteed wage with a large performance element, a firm can motivate higher effort from all workers and it can attract and retain workers with high skills (Lazar and O’er, 201 1). As a result to this self-selection, paying for reference separates skilled employees who earn more under such system from unskilled workers who are better off in settings where performance does not matter.

Critical Thinking essay

The Stanford Prison Experiment was a fascinating research conducted into he behaviors of guards and prisoners in a prison setting. The original experiment was planned for two weeks but had to be terminated after six days due to the effects the environment had on the guards, prisoners and even Dry. Zanzibar himself. After realizing the effects it had on everyone, including himself, the experiment was terminated after 6 days. If I were in charge of this scientific experiment, I would have condo acted the exact same study.

I would like to think after seeing the changes in everyone participating in the experiment, would terminate the study early too. If I were a guard for this experiment, would like to think I would be a just and fair one. I had the distinct pleasure of detaining and guarding suspected terrorists in Fallfish, Iraq and based on my experience, did my best to ensure they were treated fairly under the Geneva Convention. While they were cuffed, blindfolded and locked in extremely hot wooden cells in the desert heat, I ensured they had adequate water and food.

So am absolutely sure I would not turn into a sadistic guard as the ones in the experiment. This reason is simple, you take mom random person with little or no experience or authority and you hand him or her some form of power, it corrupts. I was already in the Marines for four years, had training into the proper conduct and procedures in handling detainees. Additionally, I knew the real life consequences of misconduct. If I were a prisoner in the study, I absolutely would have been able to endure the experience.

This is based upon my experience with the Marine Corps and Marine Corps Basic Training. First thing they do is put you on a plane or on a us and take you to one of two training sites away from your natural environment. As soon as you get there, a Drill Instructor screams for you to get off the bus, taken into processing for the next two days with little or no sleep. In processing your head is completely shaved, you are issued all new uniforms and you can no longer use terms such as I, me, you, he etc. But instead have to address everyone, including yourself in the third person.

For three long months you are constantly screamed at, 24/7 supervision, punished for any wrong doing or sometimes just because and all if this is one because it prepares new recruits on the potential of becoming prisoners of war. So, if the question was if I could endure this experience as a prisoner, I think I can handle it. If I was imprisoned in a real prison for five years or more, am sure I could take it, people endure it daily some for ten or more years. As stated earlier, my experience in the Marine Corps prepares me for the potential in becoming a prisoner of war.

The ethical dilemmas in the Stanford prison experiment and the Stanley Amalgam’s obedience experiment is similar n that they focus on authority and the experiments could be questioned ethically because of the emotional and psychological burden it placed on the participants. With all offbeat said, I think we are still better off with the studies being conducted because it gave greater insight into the behaviors of individuals when confronted with authority. With this knowledge, ideally society would try and change our corrections system to limit the amount of abuse.

Lady Chatterley’s lover analysis essay

In December 1927 Lawrence begins to work on the third – and final erosion of the novel, which was initially planned to be called “TendernessВยป (Tenderness). Writer was in the negotiations with London and New York publishers. They demanded to mitigate the most sensual descriptions and withdrawal of some not too familiar to the public words. The author has prepared a “softened” version Of the novel, but the publishers refuse to publish it. As a result, the full text of the book comes out in a small printing house of the Italian publisher Giuseppe Oriole in March of 1 928 in edition of one thousand copies.

Lawrence creativity was persecuted: in mid-1929 Alice of London prohibits the exhibition of his paintings at the subscribers of England and with the US decision of the judicial authorities all the copies of his new novel were confiscated. Only three years later, after his death, edition of “Lady Chatterer’s Lover” was released to the public, with the participation of Friend Lawrence, and it raised great interest among readers. It is enough to say that the edition in his homeland until 1 960 was reprinted more than thirty times.

Only in 1960, a judgment was finally allowed to publish the full text of the long-suffering novel. Lawrence literary prose has detailed focus on character, and psychological exploration. “Romance” seems like an obvious genre choice for Lady Chatterer’s Love. Connie and Oliver are almost nauseatingly in love, although sometimes that love is very poetically expressed: “But the little forked flame between me and you: there you are! That’s what abide by, and will abide by” (19. 167). This “little forked flame” of love-?but also of sex-?is at the heart of the novel.

The novel fits into the context of literature of the “lost generation” on many aspects. Already in the iris lines of the novel expressed the thoughts and sentiments of those who survived the catastrophe of war. War smashed happiness of Constance Chatterer to the nines, made her husband Clifford an invalid and broke the destiny of Sir Clifford huntsman, a former soldier Oliver Mellows. The life- story of these three people, their relationships in an atmosphere of post-war life in England poured into establishing new principles of relations between man and woman, became the subject of artistic research in the novel.

Like the other writers of the “lost generation” Lawrence refers to the fate of the young an. Clifford Chatterer, who inherited the baronetcy after his father and older brother died in the war, was twenty-nine years old when he returned home on leave from the front. He married Constance (Connie) Reed. The novel develops three years after this event, in 1920, when the couple settled in Chatterer Manor Rugby Hall. Clifford after the wedding with his young wife spent a month’s leave, and then returned to Flanders, to the front, where he was badly wounded and then sent to England.

Within two years he was under the supervision of doctors, and then he was acknowledged recovered and as able to return to normal life, but the lower part of his body, starting with the hips, was permanently paralyzed. Because of that accident Clifford was forever deprived of the happiness of physical love. Clifford could not move without a wheelchair, he even started another chair with a motor. In it he could drive around his beautiful melancholy park, of which was very proud.

He’s been through so much, that the capacity for suffering had dulled. As before, he remained alert, cheerful and even a gay man, his face was ruddy, wholesome and light blue, bright eyes looked at the world with a bold halogen. He had a broad, powerful shoulders and a very strong hand. He dressed expensive fashion. But sometimes his gaze grew absent, as it happens at the crippled or seriously ill people. Looking death in the face, his attitude to life changed forever. Life for him became something incredibly precious.

His brilliant eyes showed that he was proud of himself on the fact that after all that has happened, he still managed to survive, but after all that sufferings he was no longer able to feel so fine as before . His soul became devastated. However, Clifford slowly adapts to his new position, and even evolves a frantic activity in the reconstruction of the mine he owns, and then he became a fashionable Loon’s writer. However, Clifford still felt emptiness and coldness. To put it mildly, Clifford relationship with residents in the nearby miner village Adversely went wrong.

Clifford did not cause any particular love or special hate – he was seen as independent part of miners’ reality. Clifford secretly hated them, perhaps he was even afraid of them. The author sees the reason for this situation is that Clifford general did not feel the need for human contact, in other words he simply denied it. Clifford knew that his children would not be born, and that is last Chatterer, still alive, in his homestead in the smoky heart of England. Filled with ambitions, Clifford began to write short stories, quite strange, very personal stories about people he had known.

However, they appeared in the most fashionable magazines and received different reviews. Writing even brought Clifford income. And because of that new acquaintances began to appear in estate. Frequent guests were former Clifford comrades from Cambridge. Not paying attention to the presence of the owner’s wife, they willingly showed their redeem of thought, including in matters of morality. A common theme of their conversations became fashionable in the sass theme of ‘free love” and sex. They do not believe in love, but called for sex, knowing it at the level of “natural origin”.

Connie, however, during her “silent presence” at these intelligent conversations felt that “they did not really know what they say”, with their refined intellectualism hiding the emptiness and the absence of a genuine life. “Lord, what a cold souls! ” – Connie realized. Gradually this assessment extended to her husband Clifford. Seeing her husband more and ore paralyzed with spiritual paralysis Connie wanted to scream in frustration. But when Oliver Mellows appeared in Sconce’s life, sorry for the husband gives way to hostility.

The culmination of this feeling is the scene of the fifth chapter, when Clifford read Racine to Connie after dinner. That evening Connie came after another walk in the woods after physical intimacy with Oliver. That night she did not even take a bath. She came out of the woods, all transfigured. Clifford nurse Mrs. Bolton realized that Connie has a lover in Lady Chatterer sight, even her husband did not see but rather ensued some change in his wife. Clifford soul was restless. He did not let her go after dinner, though she wanted to be alone. He offered to read aloud to her.

The ability to read Racine in an authentic, magnificent French style was a source of pride to Clifford, but that night reading seemed to Connie monotonous and loud. This scene symbolically shows an opposition of the world of nature and civilization with its deadening machines. Further development of the image of Clifford going toward the influential, which is especially evident in his relationship with his nurse, Mrs.. Bolton. The Clifford wound took away his manhood and that was a symbol having deep roots in the post-war literature. It was about the thought of paralysis, not only of the body but of the soul of men of “lost generation”. The pain caused by the war, brutal and lawless does not cease from the first to the last line of the novel. Sir Clifford is a product of our civilization, the person that has lost all ties with their compatriots, men and women. The warmth of human relations isn’t known to him, his cold heart is dead. He is good at the foundations, but impel human partnership is alien to him. And he loses the woman he loves. Clifford confidence is quite symbolic. It symbolizes the deep emotional paralysis of most modern men of the class to which Clifford belongs.

Oliver Mellows loved Lady Constance Chatterer with a man’s love for a woman Of another higher circle to which he didn’t belong. Constance, refined and educated society lady, at first was aware of social barriers between her and Oliver, however instinctively drawn to him. And as barriers separating Oliver and Lady Chatterer fell down, the others appeared. And they were associated with jealousy, mutual misunderstanding, different tastes and interests. At the end of the book there is another problem – the future child, which gets Mellows jealousy.

However, these relationships fit well into the concept of love – rivalry. The main thing is that they had a tenderness to each other, and words in the final Mellows his letter to Connie (“l believe in the flame that erupted between us”) were filled with hope. In the image of the huntsman Mellows embodied life, humanity, warmth, and all the qualities that, along with social status, contrasted to Sir Clifford. Oliver Mellows came from a miner’s family, went to the army as a volunteer and rose to the rank of officer in the colonial army in Egypt and in India, he hadn’t a military career.

Educated and well-read, Mellows could take not the last place in a society. But he (and that does not change the traditional image of the hero of Lawrence) is not willing to compromise with society. He hires foresters to be able to live away from people and interact with nature. Mellows is a staunch opponent of modern civilization that, according to him, kills identity and life itself in the person. Mellows embodied the image of typical characters of literature of “lost generation ” of escapism.

Final love of Oliver and Connie are not so tragic, as in the novel “Three Comrades” and “A Farewell to Arms”, for example, but very sad. They were separated by hundreds of miles, and in the need of going through the hell of divorcing process, lovers write letters to each other in the hope to stand up to the difficulties. The motif of “barren land” was embodied in the image of neighborhoods surrounding Manor Rugby. Right behind the estate Adversely village began, where over the small hobby houses of brick mine with a huge smoking pipe was predominating.

From the gloomy chambers of Rugby Hall Constance Chatterer heard rumbling of coal sieve, puffing of engine shaft cage, wheel trolleys and hoarse whistles of locomotives. Developer’s coal pit was burning for years. And for some reason it was destined to burn in the future. And when the wind was blowing in the direction of the house (and it happened often) the room filled with the sulfur stench of burning underground excrement’s. But even on windless days the air constantly smelled of hell – sulfur, iron, coal, or acid. People here have been exhausted, colorless, gloomy, as the surrounding area, and the same unwelcoming.

Lawrence writes about the degeneration of society and people of their meaningless existence and the lack of future. So many scatological estimates scattered in the pages of the novel, and so utopian was Mellows’ projects of reviving mankind, that they are drowning in a sea of despair. This novel of David Herbert Lawrence tune with the tone of tragic literature of “lost generation”. In summary, I note that the Lawrence novel “Lady Chatterer’s Lover” has OTOH typologically similar properties of “lost generation” prose, as well as considerable originality.

As similarities can be noted an appeal to the fate of a young man, physically and spiritually crippled by the war, to the soul looking for individualism as a form of protection against the deceiving society, seeking to find himself, who in the pursuit of success (Clifford), who is in love (Mellows). Interest is in the theme of self-discovery, frustration and escapism, a tragic tone, uncompromising critique of the foundations of civilization, lyrical intensity. Peculiar feature is that the real heroine of the novel became

Constance Chatterer, who had to make a choice between these values and mirages, define their place in life. The main emphasis is not on the social side of life and not on the scenes of action. They are transferred to the categories Of psychological, moral and ethical character. The main conflict of the novel is in the confrontation of cold intellect, consciousness, rational, fearful and overwhelming their senses and sensory awareness, freely given to passion. The presence mythological elements in the connection with apparently realistic narrative is specific feature of the novel.

Cristian Miller essay

Gratuity by others is viewed s “A relatively innocent transaction in a work universe in which the standard form of reciprocity is extortion-ate rather than hospitable. ” (Delegate, 201 1). Whether it is a free cup of coffee at a gas station or a discounted meal at a restaurant, some business owners have ulterior motives when extending these small favors to officers. They do these things expecting something back in return. It is my opinion that gratuity is okay as long as long as you are not asking for it and purposely looking for it.

There have been times when have stopped at a diner still in uniform and someone has tried to pay for my meal r give me a discount. I have also gone to the store before work in uniform and people have tried paying for the few items that I had or let me go in front of them. The issue surrounding gratuity is a matter of ethics, morals, and corruption as a whole. Corrupt officers can be divided into two categories, Grass-eaters and Meat-eaters. Grass-eaters will accept gratuity if it comes their way whereas Meat-eaters use their power for personal gain.

Accepting something as simple as free coffee or discounts on meals could easily lead to the corruption of an officer. For example as Lawrence W. Sherman states in our textbook Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing; accepting a free cup of coffee can lead to accepting a free drink from a bartender, to bribes for traffic violations, to money from gamblers and prostitutes, and lastly graft from narcotics. Furthermore, “If greed is simple, the variety of temptations to which police and other public officials succumb is not. ” (Delegate, 2011).

Law enforcement officers are “respected and suspected, hated and loved, feared and courted for favor, maligned and praised. They wield tremendous power ND are capable of depriving others of their freedom, their reputations, and their lives. ” (McCarty & McCarty, 1998). The cause of corruption can be attributed to one of three hypotheses. The first is the Society-at-large Hypothesis; the second is the Structural or Affiliation Hypothesis and the third is the Rotten Apple Hypothesis. The Society-at-large Hypothesis was born in Chicago. People such as door attendants, chauffeurs, house cleaners, cooks, and deliverymen would be given small gratuities; as this would determine the level of service one would receive (Delegate, 201 1). Loud see how it would be easy for officers to be included among this group of people, as they are public servants. Police officers would be extended gratuities for doing illegal favors. This hypothesis puts police officer in much a larger group along with citizens that usually accept gratuities for service. The Structural or Affiliation Hypothesis holds that rookies from higher-ranking officers learn corruption.

From officers that are supposed to set examples in their departments for new comers. An example of this hypothesis would be Detective Sergeant Hank Bought in Chicago Fire. In Chicago Fire, Detective Sergeant Bought allows criminals such as gang members, drug dealers, and drug addicts to get away with certain things in exchange for information and favors. Because of this, his corrupt ways trickle down to his unit. Have experienced this form of corruption while working at a county jail myself. The Captain and Lieutenants allow a certain kind of behavior from a select few inmates in exchange for information.

These select inmates get to stay out and clean the halls, extra phone time, and extra recreation time. By higher-ranking officers doing this they then set the tone for what the sergeants and officers can do on their blocks. Lastly, the Rotten Apple Hypothesis states that people are naturally corrupt. This hypothesis holds that individuals may have been susceptible to bad examples and or experiences during childhood. Officers who are bad apples are capable of selling drugs, robbery, theft, and other more serious crimes such as murder. I do not believe that people are born corrupt.

This however, does not mean that you have to become a product of your environment. All of these hypotheses lack something that others have moreover; think all of these theories have a substantial amount of truth to them when added together. I believe we have all encountered some form of corruption in our chosen fields. I think that corruption is a learned behavior. Some people learn this behavior because of the environment they grow up in and the people that they surround themselves with. “An incorruptible person, as Aristotle observed, “Is truthful in word and deed just because truthfulness has become second nature with him.

Intervention – The Great Gatsby essay

At the pull of a lever the ground lurched below their feet and they were trapped in the box hurting towards the fiery pits of ell as their clothes seemed to strangle and dampen in the heat. Daisy reached out and tentatively placed a petite, clammy hand on the shoulder of Jays pink suit jacket in an attempt to bring him from the torments of his mind and back once more into the heat of the lift to comfort her. ‘Jay, I – I’m sorry. I thought I knew what I wanted buyout know things have their ways Of escaping me. Didn’t realize ‘Let’s not start Daisy. Not now,’ he said softly but sternly.

His broad hand closed around hers and he tucked her arm under his before he resumed his silent stillness. The only part of him he allowed to move was one tiny muscle in his chiseled jaw which twitched in persistent protest against the reality that he and Daisy could not be as they were five years ago. Daisy was the incarnation of beauty, of gentleness and of wealth, all of which drove Gatsby. She was the green grass on the other side of the fence. In Gatsby s eyes the splendor of their past remained his destination; it was still unquestionably tangible.

In reality however he had only just caught a glimpse of it and it was receding further from him into the realm of fantasy, he quality of Daisy’s love for him, a mere delusion. It was at that moment Gatsby wondered if he would be forever reaching out to the green light across the Sound to grasp nothing but the darkness of the night, but he shock the thought from his mind in an instant. On their way to the Plaza Hotel in Tom’s automobile Gatsby was sure she would soon be his. Their plan was in place.

Daisy would announce her love for him and have nothing more to do with that brute Tom Buchanan and they would love showered in the love they ad for one another, a perfect replica of the picture he kept polished and untouched by dust in the forefront of his hopeful mind. Earlier he was awestruck by her eyes glistening as blue as the summer sky as the air of the New York afternoon caressed her hair through the window of Tom’s automobile. Such beauty was what he striver with all of his being to be included in. The pair walked arm in arm across the dimly lit foyer of the Plaza Hotel and nodding at the doorman Gatsby wished him a good evening.

Crossing the pavement, they walked quietly, still arm in arm to the driver’s did of his grand yellow Rolls Royce and as Gatsby lay an experienced hand on its handle Daisy squeaked in protest. ‘Let me drive us this evening Jay, think it will steady my nerves. ‘ She held up a quivering hand. ‘Look! I’m shaking like a leaf! ‘ She exclaimed with a sparkling smile and laugh that tinkled like bells in the wind. Gatsby held the door pen for her standing straight like the soldier he was when he had first gazed into her charming, melancholy eyes.

She slipped onto the seat maintaining swan-like grace and the door was shut softly after her. Removing a pair of white driving gloves from her purse she held the wheel, eyes focused on the horizon and eager to return to the comfort of her home. New York glistened in the heat, its neon signs sparkling against the peachy afternoon sky. Daisy glanced at Gatsby as the car slowed at a set of traffic lights and once more, she felt herself fall in love him all over again. The soft shaven skin of his face reflected the sunset like expensive silk.

With one hand on the wood of the steering wheel, she reached out and stroked his satiny cheek with her silk-gloved fingers. His handsome face turned towards her and his eyes crinkled authentically at their corners, his expression one of reverence. Daisy turned her attention back to the landscape moving toward them. Weak yellow lights struggled through the dusty air like fading stars as the yellow automobile sped down the road which by now had been reduced to gravel. ‘I say, this has to be one of the ugliest little places have ever had to drive through! ‘ Daisy exclaimed in disgust.

In her sugar-coated voice the announcement had an enchanting melody to which Gatsby listened with fond admiration. The tension that was hanging over the pair when they left the hotel room seemed to have dissipated with the heat of the afternoon. They were moving into the vision of Dry T. J Cocklebur and into the thickening dust clouds that swirled and danced underneath the street lamps. Daisy’s thoughts were of her beautiful Pam sleeping soundly at home. She pictured rivulets shining heir framing her precious angelic face, where she would be safe out of the clamminess of the dusk, safe in her silken sheets at home.

She was just where Daisy wanted to be; out of the dirt and the sweat of the afternoon and home in her cool, fresh house with Tom. Safe and sound. A sigh escaped Daisy. She was tired from the stress of change. A sharp yell split the evening air and the glimmer of yellow headlights on pale skin intruded into Daisy dreaming and caused her to draw in a sharp breath. A distressed woman who appeared to be shouting at them was in their path. Daisy swerved abruptly to the left in an attempt to avoid the woman only to be nauseated by the light coming from an oncoming AR and the deafening shriek of a horn.

Daisy hastily turned back to the right side of the road, and Gatsby gripped the wheel with teeth clenched in a final, useless attempt at missing the women. The car was met with a dull thud. With that, the accelerator was pressed to the floor and Daisy made her escapes, leaving the stranger to bleed in the dusty steer like road kill. ‘What in God’s name was the women doing!? Daisy scolded without slowing down. ‘Running onto the street light a maniac, that’s a sure way to make a mess of a nice car. ‘

Tips on Passing Selected Business Courses essay

As always, reach out to your course mentors. They have always been extremely helpful and willing to assist me with anything I needed. Comments) Tasks and 5 are the easiest to complete. The course mentors actually suggest doing those 1 SST and then tackling tasks 2 and 4. Tasks 2 and 4 are not difficult but they do require more detailed work. Be sure you show all of your work for every section of these tasks. If not they will be sent back for revisions. Do not over complicate these tasks! They really are as easy as they seem! FOCI: If you look at the exam, 22 of the questions are on the section called “Individual and Group

Performance”. Make sure you thoroughly study the chapters in this section on the COOS since that topic makes up 44% of the actual exam. I also highly recommend reading the Diversity chapter as there are several questions on that topic. I don’t recommend taking this class until you finish MIMIC because there is a section on competitive advantage which is the same as the competitive advantage material you learn in MIMIC . I only spent about 2 weeks on this class and still passed with an 82%. *****(Skate’s Comments) The BBC assessment was rewritten and the pre-assessment now aligns almost refectory with the actual assessment.

Be sure you have a solid understanding of motivation and change theories and how to apply them to certain scenarios. View the Dropped link for some additional resources. ICC: (Skate’s comments) This class shares a book with BBC. When studying for BBC be sure you read the strategic management text well. You will be killing two birds with one stone. Be sure to check out the Dropped link for additional resources. CLC: I passed the assessment with an 85% without even studying or reading any chapters. It is a very easy class so I wouldn’t recommend spending too much time on it.

Take the pre-assessment and if you do not score well, then definitely go through the material. Look at the areas in which you scored below an 80% in and read the chapters for those topics. If you do well on the pre-assessment and want to accelerate your degree I recommend just scheduling the assessment without doing any studying. MIMIC : This class is tough for many students and I have heard Of students failing the exam 5 or 6 times before passing. However, if you really put the work in you will pass on the first try. Passed this class with a 90% by first locating the “Key Study Aid” questions located after each chapter.

Write these questions down in your notebook and answer each question as thoroughly as possible while reading all the chapters. There are parts of the flat world textbook with material and text that WHIG has added in. Pay close attention to these parts especially because that is where a lot of the exam comes from. There are also about 8 supplemental documents on the community message board that the course mentor put together and will be provided to you. Print these out and use them as well as the textbook to answer the key study aids.

Study the placement material thoroughly because a lot of the questions are based on these separate documents. Try to attend the live webzines that are held each week. At the end of the webbing, the course mentor gives quiz questions that are very similar if not the same questions that were on the exam. Also, watch the “Marketing Minutes” that the course mentor has put together. Watch them over and over until everything clicks. It sounds like a lot of work, but it will help you get a great score and pass on the first try. This course took me about a month and a half but I was studying for at least 5-6 hours each ay.

It could take longer depending on how much time you have and how well you retain information. CGI: I passed this class with an 82% by reading the chapters and answering the questions located in the course of study. After I read the chapters for each section, I went through the Twinkle videos. Also watched the videos the course mentors put together on each topic over and over until it clicked for me. It also helps tremendously to work on EST. tasks 1-3 at the same time. They relate directly to the course material that is on the exam. Also attended the live webzines each time they were offered.

It took e a month to complete CGI and tasks 1-3 of EST.. EST.: Dry. Wade Roberts is the course mentor for this class and he is amazing. He is so approachable and really cares about his students. The videos he put together on Youth walk you through each task step by step and that is what really helped me, especially with tasks 1-3. Task 4 is about international business. This task is the most difficult and requires a lot of research and it took me about 2 weeks to finish that paper but it is a fun topic that allows you to do research on how to do business with different cultures. RITE: The course has about 8 topics o choose from.

They key is to pick a topic you know a lot about and are interested in. If you are looking for a challenge, you may want to pick a topic that you don’t know too much about but are very interested in learning. The task instructions are pretty straightforward and they give you a template to use for writing your paper. Enjoyed writing this paper because the topic was interesting to me, so make sure you like your topic. CLC: (Skate’s comments) Using “Unwarrantably” is very important for this class. There are several units that are covered from basic math (i. E. Real numbers, sequences, percentages ND proportions) to geometry and basic algebra.

Units 5-8 (algebra) are worth the least on the test but it is important that you have a foundation in algebra in order to move on the geometry which is worth around 40% of the test. If you have issue with this class the Schenectady. Com videos are very good and may help solidify your knowledge. Also using the “help me solve this” and the “show me an example” functions within Mothball may help you understand these examples. In Dropped there is a Reference sheet that gives you several formulas, conversion, and practice problems. You will want to omit these formulas to memory because you will not be able to use them on the test.

SQL: (Skate’s Comments) SQL can be done before or after CLC depending on your knowledge of Algebra and geometry. Task 1 has a couple of templates in dropped so that you are not having to create your own. Tasks 1-4 can be done by hand but it may be easier to do them in excel so that they are easier to revise. If you do not understand how to create a graph in excel there are several videos that will walk you through step by step. Search Youth. Com for your specific version of excel. For the most part you are sing the scatter plot function to create these graphs.

Be very clear as to how you are coming up with your responses to the task prompts. In task 4 you are asked to solve a geometric proof. This needs to be a logical step by step proof. Each Step will ask for a reason which needs to be proven by either the step before it or by a given. If you are having issues with geometric proofs review module 4 in the Pearson Mothball. Task 5 is a real world scenario where you are asked to add in more info to create your own word problem. It should lead to a cost comparison scenario where you are asked to discuss efferent elements of the problem.

You will need to use excel to create your graph. You will not be allowed to scan this problem in. There is one scenario that you will need more than two algebraic equations to correctly evaluate the scenario(daycare). The other 3 you will need 2. You will then be asked to evaluate the information and make a decision based on your analysis of the graph and your algebraic work. Be sure you answer each task prompt thoroughly and you understand what is being asked. MAKE: (Skates comments) With this class didn’t go through all of the required reading before starting the task. You have to develop a marketing plan.

I used the template that was given in the communities and worked through only the portions of the text that I needed a more thorough understanding of what was being asked. There are examples of marketing plans in the community. This task took me about a week to complete. BBC: (Skate’s comments) This class took me all of 2 days. Took the pre-assessment and passed with a high enough score to schedule the assessment. The pre-assessment is almost exact to the actual test. Understand basic geography (longitude, latitude, prime meridian, equator Take a look at the map of each continent and here major countries are in those continents.

This one is a pretty east pass. Take the Pre first and study your weak areas. SEC: (Skate’s comments) The book is set up by topic and is pretty great. It gives you a progress bar for each topic (AKA chapter) and there is a video at the beginning of each sub topic. I worked through 1-2 topics a day. There are 13 topics but only 11 that you are tested on. At the end of each subtopic there is an end of topic assessment. I took all photoset and then the end of chapter tests to make sure understood. If you get them wrong it will show you how to work them. It also has a function that will read the text to you.

That came in handy because I could download the audio and put it on my phone so I could listen when was too busy to think. The cohort for finance I felt like it was a waste of time. The book is set up with end of chapter quizzes which is exactly what the cohort is. Basically the CM copied and pasted the end of chapter questions and did the same with the solutions for the cohort homework. You can have the same passing rate by just reading through the short topics taking the end of topic and end of chapter quizzes and taking notes on the questions you missed so you understand how to work them.

Ethics of cloning essay

Nevertheless, some people might look at it from the religious point of view and their beliefs and argue hat this is playing God, arguing that “only God has created life”. 1 As it can be seen in nature, by looking at single cell twins who have identical genetic material and yet are not the same person. Therefore it is impossible to create a new soul.

On the other hand, many fear that it will result in people misusing the power of genetic engineering for purely physical purposes, stating that we may go too far -? creating the dreaded “designer babies” whose appearance, Q, creative talents and athletic ability will have been customized-2 As controversial as cloning is to today’s society, cloning has a retreat potential benefit within the field of medicine.

By using cloning scientist are able to generate stem cells which are cells that haven’t been differentiated into specialized cells, to use for transplants such as replacement of unhealthy cells in an individual whether that be an animal or a human being. However, despite benefits such as transplants, cloning does carry some difficult ethical issues. It rises many questions such as when is it acceptable to use cloning in situations such as when a couple is unable to conceive a baby or when one member of the couple carries the genes for a heritable disease that could affect their offspring?

Also, it presents us with issues like what kind of life would the cloned individual have? Weather he would live like an individual with a unique background story or he would have to live like a genetic prisoner for numerous experiments for the future generations? These kind of issues create an ethical and moral dilemma for scientists and experts who see cloning as potential danger to human identity. This research paper will explore the controversial issues that raise with cloning of humans, animals as well as food through explaining possible advantages and disadvantages that cloning can bring to today’s society as ell as future generations.

II. Conclusion The process of cloning can obviously be of great help for human kind. It can be a matter of great scientific and medical progress. Diseases could be cured, tissues and organs could be produced, environmental problems could be solved, infertile couples could finally have a satisfactory solution for their problem; even the country’s agriculture could benefit from cloning. Therefore, we can say that it is ethical. But, what about all those liabilities it carries? If we allow cloning of cells, tissues, organs, animals and, finally, babies, the cloning of grown humans would probably be allowed too.

And it brings too many problems. The loss of genetic diversity, which is one of the main treasures of this world, could be a great danger for human kind. Not to mention that this process is not developed enough; consequently, one out of hundreds test subjects survives. And we cannot know what kind of life would the clone have. Would it have some kind of a defect, would it face the risk of premature death? In addition, how would other people act around the clone? Would they be treated as things rather than humans, equal to those conceived naturally? What if the society became divided into two classes; clones and us?

The risk is simply too immense. Once we allow something, it is extremely difficult to restrain it, it is almost impossible to set the boundaries. By popularizing any scientific breakthrough, we face the hazard of using the innovation in a society- threatening manner. This particular issue, cloning, has too many negative possible outcomes. It has a great potential for all kinds of misuses and taking advantage of the clones. In conclusion, we cannot say that cloning in general is ethically right. As there would also be some benefits, by making it legal, actually, all living beings would be in danger.

Nonprofit versus for profit healthcare organizations week essay

As stated in The Health Care Manager October-December 2005), “Society in the majority believes that health care is too precious, intimate, and corruptible to entrust to market forces,” (p. 299). These types of organizations are expected to treat patients who may have no way of paying for the services and to take that as a loss. These types of hospitals must also be careful in how they advertise in page 2 their community to compete with other practices in the area.

Too much advertising of their services can call into question their accounting practices, “how can they be nonprofit if they have that kind of money for advertising. The nonprofit healthcare provider must have “transparency,” the public wants to know what you are doing with any excess monies. ” (Advertising by Nonprofit Health Care Organizations, Fall 2008, p. 261). Nonprofits can be exempt from local, state and federal taxes, bringing with it many regulations to abide. However, by following these regulations in order to keep their exempt status, they can lose much of any profit they may generate, i. . Having to accept patients who cannot pay for services rendered or receiving reduced payments from Medicare and/or Medicaid. Any actual profit is reinvested in their organization. (Barton, p. 265). For nonprofit organizations to effectively compete and survive financially in communities, they must look at ways to become more efficient and cut some of their operating expenses, all while maintaining quality care for their patients. One way is to reduce the turnover rate of employees and rate at which employees call in to work sick due to job dissatisfaction.

According to Increasing Efficiency and Enhancing Value in Health Care, one hospital “determined the turnover cost for one nurse at one agility for recruiting, orientation, training, and productivity cost was between $48,000 and $74,000. ” Also the costs were usually greater to use a medical professional from a staffing agency to cover shortages or sick days taken by hospital employees. (Martin, 2009, p. 14). Improving employee morale, creating more of a team environment to work in, and listening to what employees want can result in less page 3 turnover and cost savings by not continually hiring and training new employees.

The hospitals can also look at using more “generic medications instead of brand name,” transitioning patients to oral medications by stopping costlier IV medications sooner, and dosing correctly in the first place so you are not using other medications to reverse “adverse reactions”. (Martin 2009, p. 18). For-profit organizations are seen by some as the villains of healthcare. They can pick and choose their patients, sometimes called “cherry-picking” choosing patients who have less complications and referring others to nonprofits in order to save money. ” (The Healthcare Manager, p. 298).

These types of hospitals are also more likely to provide what are noninsured “more profitable services,” such as open heart surgery and other cardiac services including angioplasty because insurers usually pay more for these services. ” (Making Profits and Providing Care, p. L and p. 3). These providers do not have to provide free services or programs to the community because they are not considered a nonprofit and some regulations for operating this type of hospital can be less stringent than a nonprofit. For- profit organizations share their profits as dividends to their shareholders. (Barton, p. 65). For-profit organizations can improve their negative image by ore involvement in the community in which they operate and showcase their efficiencies and state of the art facilities through advertising to the public. For example, Comfort Dental offices are each “independently owned,” but each franchise participates in their community by providing “Care Day on Christmas Eve” each year where they provide dental care free of charge on that day to those Page 4 who cannot afford it. (Compartmental. Com). Panorama Orthopedic and Spine Center in Golden, Colorado is owned by a group of physicians.

The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Disability essay

Researchers Purdue-Vaughan & Beach (2008), as well as an increasing number of scholars in the field of ace an ethnic studies, refer to these variables as subordinate-group identities because members of such groups have historically been oppressed in a White male-dominated society. Systematic structures in America’s education, health care, and vocational rehabilitation systems, as well as invisible racism inherent at both the micro and macro levels of society, produce and perpetuate the disparity that exists between disc bled African American men and every other race and gender in American society.

Although nearly all of the studies in this review agree that the outlook for kissable African American males is bleak, literature needs to further examine how high risk factors associated with normalization come together to create oppression. According to researchers, these variables, which are often referred to as subordinate identities, have profound effects on heath care, socioeconomic status, and independent living. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keynoters: internationality, developmental disability, subordinate-group identities The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Disability: Implications for Adulthood According to the U. S. Census Bureau (2013) the percentage of non- institutionalized Black males With disabilities, regardless of ethnicity or educational background, was 13. 4% in 201 2 and represented approximately half of the total percentage Of Black Americans living below the poverty line that year. The intersection of race and gender profoundly impacts African American males and often results in their normalization to the periphery of American society.

According to Blanched, Clinger, and Harry (2009), when disability is added to the mix, poverty is often an inevitable consequence. The authors assert that the insurmountable effects of racism, as well as the hysterical and emotional challenges of disability, may be powerful and far reaching. The historical mistreatment of Black males in America, as well as modern day systems of discrimination and widespread resignation, leave this segment of our population in a deadlocked bind (Blanched et al. , 2009).

Research on outcomes for African American men has employed a wide variety of sampling methods, samples, populations, criteria, and theoretical approaches. Nearly all studies have arrived at a similar consensus: African American males begin life at a distinct disadvantage due to societal inequities hat exist regardless of the socioeconomic or educational status of their families (Articles, 2013). Pervasive inequity follows this population through life, changing form and effect as boys grow into men.

The intersection of additional factors such disability and poverty make this population of Americans exceptionally vulnerable to a double, triple, or even quadruple jeopardy effect of societal discrimination (s-Vaughn & Beach, 2008). These men are faced with all-encompassing disparities relating not only to race, but to other parts of the human condition such as gender, disability, and social class. Researchers have collectively defined and measured adult outcomes for African American men with disabilities, in the following categories: socioeconomic Status, health care, and independent living.

Statistical analyses on adulthood outcomes for this population have been primarily addressed by federal entities such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U. S. Census Bureau. These governmental studies annually compare outcomes for African American men with those of White males in similar demographic categories, as well as provide statistical comparisons to African American women and both genders of other races.

Alternatively, scholars in the fields of ethnography, disability studies, and sociology have largely conducted qualitative inquiry into issues that predominantly affect the lives of African American men who live in a state of “multiple jeopardy/’ (Purdue-Vaughan & Beach, 2008). Qualitative research has relied heavily on case study and firsthand anecdotal accounts of African American men and members of the African American community. Interestingly, surveys have not been commonly employed as an instrument for measuring success of adulthood experiences for this population.

Alternatively, research involving adulthood outcomes for other segments of the disabled American population, such as white males with autism, rely heavily on survey instruments as a means to collect and measure data (Henning & Taylor, 2013). In this review, incorporate prevailing studies that represent each Of the principal adulthood outcome areas of research. I used a two prong search approach: (1) reviewed a number of literature databases; and (2) conducted backwards citation searches of recent reviews focused on outcomes of African American males with disabilities (Henning & Taylor, 013).

Studies were included if they (1) systematically evaluated an aspect of adulthood outcome that has a significant impact on overall quality of life; (2) integrated the micro and macro level impact of society on these effects; and (3) provided information relevant to the exploration of internationality. Although a number of other pressing issues facing African American men with disabilities such as the high incidence of police-related violence, incarceration, and premature mortality are of considerable importance, studies regarding these issues are not included in this literature review.

This review will answer several thought-provoking questions about the adulthood experiences and outlook for African American men. In order to explore social structures that perpetuate normalization, this review will address the following questions: 1. Does the frequent misrepresentation and overrepresented of African American males in public special education programs contribute to their eventual low socioeconomic status and relegation to the periphery of American society? . Does disparity between the quality and scope of health care and vocational rehabilitation available to African American men versus White males account for increased, long-term unemployment for African American men? 3. To what degree are disabled African American adult males able to live independent, self-determined lives? Within answers to these questions may lie the potential for ameliorating longstanding problems facing this specific minority group.

The process of rich, thought-provoking inquiry often unravels complexities to their roots. Such an approach is necessary in the case of bringing relief and answers to a vulnerable target population. Historical Position of the African American Male in U. S. History According to Nail Lewis, activist member of the National Federation of the Blind, African American men living with disability “realize the exponential challenge of being a member of a disenfranchised population within a disenfranchised population” (2014, p. ). Disconnectedness from mainstream American society, which Lewis (2014) aptly describes as “disenfranchisement” has a long, convoluted historical basis. Not only do African American men who are born with or develop a disorder cope with the disadvantages of being Black and male in American society, but they also grapple with the longstanding reorganization of people who are physically or cognitively impaired. Lexis’s arguments lean more toward the additive approach to internationality.

For example, he discusses the socioeconomic outcome for persons with disabilities as being significantly lower than that of able-bodied Americans (Lewis, 2014). In this case, Lewis is treating socioeconomic status as a dependent variable and disability as an independent variable that acts as the best predictor of poverty for persons with substantial disability, regardless of race or other factors. Lewis (2014) goes on to discuss the vast challenges that re added to the lives of African American men with disabilities, based on the color of their skin.

Being born predestined to disadvantage because of race and gender, then emerging into the category of disabled as the result of a degenerative ocular disease, Nail Lewis (2014) embodies a unique perspective on poverty as an inevitable circumstance of social oppression. Author Antonio Ellis (2012) makes a strong argument that black males living in America have for centuries struggled with systematic prejudice surrounding race and gender.

According to Ellis (2012), Coping with racism and discovering adaptive possibilities within the African American way of being are psychological challenges unique to the African American male because of his novel heritage, which combines African and American traditions within a context of nearly 400 years (p. 2). According to Ellis (2012) Black men have been stereotyped as dark figures, hyperplasia, felonious, and of inferior intelligence. Misguided fear and mystique have long surrounded the image of the Black male as he has precariously navigated through a society that is watchful of his every move (Ferguson, 2001).

This ultra-vigilance extends to virtually every public space in U. S. Society, from neighborhoods, to shopping malls, to classrooms, and beyond. The American judicial ideal of innocent until proven guilty, historically and in the present, fails to apply to African American males (Ellis, 2012). In his writings, Ellis discusses the complexities that surround being Black, male, and disabled, as he himself has dealt with the challenges of a speech and language impairment.

He discusses the extent to which these variable are interactive and collectively result in “Black men holding back tears” of shame and despair in a hopeless system of perpetual discrimination (Ellis, 2012. P. 7). African American Males and Mis/ Overrepresented in Special Education In his 201 3 article Alfred Articles asserts, “Racial disproportionately in some disability categories continues to affect a sizable number of minority students across the United States, with dire long-term consequences for the educational trajectories of these learners. This applies to the African American male more than any other category of student served under IDEA (Blanched et al. , 2009). Articles (2013) examines the “rationalization of disability’ through the lens of internationality and cites the shortcomings of traditional sociological, cultural, and medical models in explaining the magnitude of racial inequity in special education. This preeminent scholar asserts that while the incidence of disability is measurably higher for African American males, these individuals are further disadvantaged by being placed in inappropriate disability categories at alarming rates (Articles, 2013).

Accordingly, the intersecting variables of race, gender, poverty, and disability work categorically to oppress African American males in every aspect of their lives, beginning with public education. Researchers Blanched et al. (2009) hare similar views on the issues of misidentification and overrepresented in special education, but lean toward a more unitary or additive approach in explaining the repercussions of internationality.

For example, Blanched et al. (2009) contend that being African American alone does not result in an increased risk for acquiring a disability, but the additive effect of poverty brings the probability full circle. This team of researchers points to the cumulative effects of subordinate identities to explain the overarching oppression suffered by an overwhelming majority of disabled African American men (Blanched et al. 2009).

The highest degree of disproportion for Black males exists in the category of Intellectual Disability (ID) as opposed to the other 12 types of federally, recognized disability categories (U. S. Census Bureau, 2012). According to Blanched et al. , “African Americans are more than twice as likely as students of other ethnicities to be identified with ID (2009, p. 395). ” In the past decade, the number of children diagnosed with ID has been steadily decreasing for every minority group except that of African American (Articles, 2013).

Two other common disability categories that reveal an overrepresented f African American males are Emotional Behavioral Disorder (BED) and Specific Learning Disability (SLD). As in the case of misdiagnoses of ID, an inflated number of Black boys are erroneously labeled as having BED or SLD (Articles, 2013). White female teachers’ low levels of awareness and sensitivity to Black culture, as well as their sometimes preconceived or unconscious judgments of African American males leads to referring them to special education Child Study teams for possible BED (Miller, 2013).

Using information from Blanched et al. ‘s (2009) research have organized in Table 1 low, possible factors that may account for the overrepresented of African American males in special education, and their misrepresentation in the disability categories of ID, SLD, or BED: Table I Independent Variables Examples Outcomes for African American Males Poverty -Environmental effects (e. G. Dead paint exposure and violence; poor prenatal care; inadequate medical care -Increased incidence of developmental disability such as ID Health Care Disparities -When income and education level of African families are controlled for, differences remain in the scope of quality of health care for Blacks and Whites in the IIS (Articles, 2013). Poorer outcome of chronic, disabling conditions. Increased probability of acquiring a disability across the lifespan (citation) Assumptions about intelligence -Long-standing belief that African Americans have intellectual deficits -IQ tests has long been culturally and linguistically biased. Increased likelihood that an individual will be labeled with ID, an SLD, or an BED Teacher Effectiveness -White female teachers are inherently biased against and fearful of African American males. -Because of cultural/gender chasm, between White female teachers and African American males, teachers are not able to adequately purport and educate African American males. -Inappropriate approaches to positively managing the behavioral and educational needs of African American male students -Excessive referrals to the Child Study process. Excessive referrals to the special education eligibility process -Overrepresented in special education, with inappropriate disability categorization A Mismatched Education is Not an Appropriate Education Researchers Atkinson-Bradley, Johnson, Aras’s, and Plunked (2006) argue that the misalignment of special education services due to erroneously applied disability labels often results in unfortunate, lifelong consequences or many Black men.

The inadequacy of education commonly received by young, disabled Black males frequently relates to racism and gender, and perpetuates the cycle of poverty (Atkinson-Bradley et al. , 2006). Much like Articles (2013), Atkinson-Bradley et al. (2006) approach the theory Of internationality from a multiplicative angle: the dual impact of race and disability results in the normalization of African American men into the stronghold of poverty. Whereas Blanched et al. (2009) view internationality as additive, Atkinson-Braided et al. 2006) assert that disability and race are interdependently related. Their collective impact is greater than their sum. These scholars appeal to school counselors, contending that for an overwhelming majority of African Americans, being poor, undereducated, and disabled leads to two specific adulthood outcomes: dependence on federally- funded programs, and significantly limited opportunities for worthwhile employment (Atkinson-Braided et al. , 2006). Unfortunately, poverty is a proverbial gift that keeps on giving.

Early in the lives of disabled Black males, American society channels them into dependence on government-subsidized orgasm instead of offering education-based preparation for fulfilling, self- determined adulthood. According to author Antonio Ellis, disabled Black male students have “lost the game before they begin to play (2012, p. 17)”. He argues that disability alone, especially in the case of disorders that impact language, does not in itself lead to compromised educational outcomes.

Factors such as “ideologically prejudiced educational environments, social spaces, and institutional intolerance” (Ellis, 201 2, p. 1 7) Often force the disengagement of Black male students from essential instruction. Similar to Lewis (2014), Antonio Ellis (2012) exposes the extent to which Black males are often destined to lives of psychological despair and normalization because schools channel them into paths that further disable them and lead to unemployment or substandard employment.

Alfred Articles (2013) asserts that not only does mislabel African American students result in inappropriate, ineffective instruction, but these students are often placed in self-contained classrooms, segregated from their same-aged peers in the general education environment. Articles (2013) contends that this occurs with AR more frequency than for White students with similar types of disabilities. Deficiencies in literacy and innumeracy that occur as a result of unproductive education in isolated spaces have profound effects on future income and adults’ success in navigating society (Blanched et al. 2009). Ineffective, Intermittent Health Care versus Authentic, Beneficial Health Care Racism is rampant in the U. S. Healthcare system, and the lack of essential medical intervention and therapies compound the challenges faced by many Black men as they enter adulthood without the adequate skills, physical ability, or elf-esteem to find and maintain gainful employment (Maddox, n. D. ). According to researchers Atkinson-Bradley et al. 2006), in the case of an early onset of disability, occurring during the developmental phase from birth to 22 years of age, African American males are much less likely than Black females or both genders of other races to be correctly diagnosed or to even receive a diagnosis. Additionally, Black males are significantly more likely than African American females or both genders Of Other races, to develop a disability during their lifetime (Inurn-Jester, Thorpe, & Fuller-Thomson, 2011 This unfortunate predisposition begins in the womb, and lasts well into the late years of life (Inurn-Jester et al. 2011). In addition to the factors of race and gender, 90 percent of the disparity in prevalence of disability between Black and White men is related to income and education (Inurn-Jester et al. , 201 1, p. 678). They support their claim by explaining that even after adjustments are made to variables that include disability type, age, commodity, and health behaviors, these differences continue (Inurn-Jester et al. , 201 1). Smelled, Stitch, and Nelson (2003) share a viewpoint similar to that f Inurn-Jester et al. 2011) about the devastating effects of the internationality of race and gender. In contrast to the latter, Smelled et al (2003) contend that even when factors such as patients’ insurance status and income are controlled “Black males receive subpart medical care in comparison with their White males counterparts” (p. 1). These authors convey the discriminatory practices of medical care providers and point out the racial disparities in U. S. Health care as possible civil rights violations (Smelled et al. , 2003).

Black and White Disparities in Rehabilitative Services According to researcher Jason Skuzzy (2004), from the very start of the eligibility process for rehabilitative services, race is an predictor Of whether an individual will qualify for support that could make or break his chances for future employment. The magnitude of the relationship be;en race and eligibility for vocational services is not clear, but race itself is indisputably a factor in persons failing to gain the essential assistance they need (Skuzzy, 2004).

Even when individuals succeed in qualifying for vocational services, Skuzzy (2004), there is definite, measurable discrepancy in the “scope, quality, ND delivery of services” available to African American men versus White men (p. 11). According to Skuzzy (2004): When other variables such as socioeconomic status, level of education, and past employment are controlled for, the rate of employment for African- Americans with disabilities remains far below that of disabled White men.

The fact that a disparity exists when all other significant variable factors are controlled for indicates a strong possibility that the key issue is racial in nature (p. 16). According to Balaclava, Oberon, Square-Balzac, & Alveolar (201 2), “In sum, congruent with previous studies, African Americans are less keel to experience positive rehabilitation outcomes and more likely to be closed from referral and application when compared to Whites” (p. 9). Once African-Americans with disabilities complete vocational rehabilitation training and begin to seek employment or employment services, barriers can thwart their best efforts and overwhelm the most dedicated job seeker (Balzac et 2012). In reviewing the literature, firsthand accounts of disabled African American men struggling to make a gainful living reinforce researchers’ hypotheses about the race-gender effect Of discrimination. Lonely and

Kennedy (2002) provide a riveting account of how discrimination is often perpetuated by the individuals and professionals who are entrusted to serve the best interests of exceptional African American men. The consensus of these researchers (Lonely and Kennedy, 2002), like that of their leading colleagues in the fields of race and disability studies, is that the variables of race, gender, and disability often merge to create an insurmountable barrier to socioeconomic self-sufficiency for disabled Black men.

Independent Living: Motivation and Self-Determination Socially imposed roadblocks that disabled Black men often encounter at very turn reduce their chances of independent living and reaching a level of self-esteem and motivation needed to create and attain personal goals. One can imagine the practical factors that determine how well individuals with disabilities may successfully manage day to day life in a dwelling of their own: socioeconomic stability; competence with adaptive living skills; ability to initiate interaction with service providers; and access to locations of employment, services, and merchants.

Findings from a recent study conducted by scholars studying the New Jersey transit system reinforce the importance of public transportation in urban areas that are primarily inhabited by minority populations (Desk & Lubing, 2012). Individuals coping with racial oppression and disability tend to live a greater distance from their jobs than do their able-bodied, White counterparts (Desk & Cubic, 2012). Transportation is but one important factor of successful independent living. As we have seen in this review, socioeconomic status can be greatly influenced by internationality and discrimination.

Vocational rehabilitation and employment success rates are especially low for African American men with exceptional challenges (Skuzzy, 2004). Normalization within educational spaces leads to perpetual loss for many of these individuals. Mismatched instruction and isolation in school has a large impact on their adulthood outcomes. The collective effect of these experiences works against the likelihood that African American males will grow up to be self-sufficient, self- determined, and self-assured. What is Fair and Right, is Fair and Right for All” – Solomon Northup, 1853 Timeless words for going foamed At a time in American history when the opportunity is ripe for a lessening of the stronghold of discrimination, we see only hollow attempts at the federal bevel. With the election of Barack Obama as the first African American president six years ago, many Americans waited with baited breath for signs of the long-anticipated dissolution of racism in our country. We are still waiting.

We are breathing now, although with sighs of disappointment that racism and discrimination remain alive and well in our society. For individuals who are impacted professionally and personally by subordinate identities that include disability, it is concretely apparent that Barack Beam’s proposed Section 508 and his Champions of Change, Winning the Future Across America program do not contain a single strategy for ameliorating change for this group. In fact, disability is treated as one huge, homogeneous condition rather than a wide spectrum of highly diverse and unique disorders.

In the 2,265 words that comprise the disability section of President Beam’s Champions of Change website, there are only two references to specific types of disability: students and recent college graduates with disabilities, and the blind. Most likely, a college degree recipient is not intellectually disabled, and those with who are blind face very different challenges than persons with motional-behavioral disorders. The delineations of disparity between disability categories are infinite.

Beam’s areas of focus and change sound promising: “improved healthcare, increased employment opportunities, expanded educational opportunities, protected civil rights, and the promotion of access to community living’ (Obama, 2014). However, there is no reference to race, or even a disability category predominantly comprised by a racially oppressed group. Those of us compelled to advocate for populations suffering from the intersection of subordinate group identities must turn our Ochs from governmental change toward other means through which genuine reconstruction can be borne.

Block, Balzac, and Keys (2002), emphasize the need for the development of an effective modern day social ideology to counteract the historical oppression Of persons who have endured the interjectional impact of race, gender, disability, and poverty. Block et al. (2002) support their claim by examining the subtle yet powerful and longstanding effects of devastating movements such as Eugenics and Hitter’s White Supremacy. The authors provide a historical overview of the impact of white dominance on persons with interjectional factors.

Similar to Ellis (201 2), authors Block et al. (2002) exert a great deal of effort in unpacking the complicated underpinnings of interjectional oppression. They appeal to scholars in the areas of ethnic studies and disabilities studies to draw on the information they provide in their article (Block et al. , 2002) to explore new ways of thinking through new research. A new social ideology is needed to break down the tangled snares of racism and general prejudice that consistently and insidiously tear certain segments populations from the very fabric of society.